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The abbreviations listed below are used without definition in articles published in The JI. The form may be used for both singular and plural, or made plural with "s" at the author's option. The list of standard abbreviations is published in the first issue of each volume.

Å, angstrom kDa, kilodalton (only with numbers)
aa, amino acid (only with numbers) L chain, light chain
Ab, antibody LD50, 50% lethal dose
ABTS, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) LFA, leukocyte (lymphocyte) function-associated Ag
ADP, adenosine 5'-diphosphate LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor
Ag, antigen LPS, lipopolysaccharide
AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome LU, lytic unit
AMP, adenosine 5'-monophosphate 2-ME, 2-mercaptoethanol
ANOVA, analysis of variance mAb, monoclonal Ab
AP-1, activator protein 1 MACS, magnetic-activated cell sorting
APC, Ag-presenting cell MALDI, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization
ATP, adenosine triphosphate MALDI-TOF, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight
BALB/c, a mouse strain MALT, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
BALT, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase
BAPTA-AM, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N' -tetraacetic acid acetoxymethyl ester MCP, monocyte chemoattractant protein
BCR, B cell receptor M-CSF, macrophage CSF
bp, base pair (only with numbers) MEK, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase
BrdU, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine MEM, minimum essential medium
BSA, bovine serum albumin MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid
C, complement mg, milligram (only with numbers)
C region, constant region of Ig MHC, major histocompatibility complex
cAMP, cyclic AMP min, minute (only with numbers)
C-terminal, carboxyl-terminal or COOH-terminal MIP, macrophage-inflammatory protein
C terminus, carboxyl or COOH terminus ml, milliliter (only with numbers)
CCL, CC chemokine ligand MLC, mixed lymphocyte culture
CCR, CC chemokine receptor MLR, mixed leukocyte reaction
CD40L, CD40 ligand mo, month(s) (only with numbers)
cDNA, complementary DNA MOPS, 4-morpholinepropanesulfonic acid
CDP, cytidine 5'-diphosphate Mr, relative molecular mass
CDR, complementarity determining region mRNA, messenger RNA
C/EBP, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide
CFA, complete Freund's adjuvant μg, microgram (only with numbers)
CFSE, 5- (and 6-)carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester μl, microliter (only with numbers)
CFU, colony-forming unit m.w., molecular weight
cGMP, guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate MyD88, myeloid differentiating factor 88
CHAPS, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate n, number in study or group
Ci, curie NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
CIITA, class II transactivator NADH, reduced NAD
CLIP, class II-associated invariant-chain peptide NaDodSO4, sodium dodecyl sulfate
cM, centiMorgan(s) NADP, NAD phosphate
CMP, cytidine 5'-monophosphate NADPH, NAD phosphate (reduced)
CMV, cytomegalovirus NBT, nitroblue tetrazolium
CNS, central nervous system ND, not determined
CoA, coenzyme A NDP, nucleoside 5'-diphosphate
Con A, concanavalin A NF, nuclear factor
CpG, cytosine guanine dinucleotide NFAT or NF-AT, nuclear factor of activated T cells
cpm, counts per minute NF-κB, nuclear factor κB
CREB, cAMP response element binding protein Ni-NTA, nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid
cRNA, complementary RNA NK cell, natural killer cell
CSF, colony-stimulating factor NMP, nucleoside 5'-monophosphate
CTL, cytotoxic T lymphocyte NO, nitric oxide
CTLA, cytolytic T lymphocyte-associated Ag NOD, nonobese diabetic
CTP, cytidine 5'-triphosphate NS, not significant
CXCL, CXC chemokine ligand nt, nucleotide (only with numbers)
CXCR, CXC chemokine receptor N-terminal, amino-terminal or NH2-terminal
d, day(s); deoxy; distilled (as in dH2O) N terminus, amino terminus or NH2-terminus
D region, diversity region of Ig or T cell receptor for Ag NTP, nucleoside 5'-triphosphate
Da, dalton (only with numbers) OCT, octamer-binding factor
DAPI, 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole OD, optical density
DEAE, diethylaminoethyl OVA, ovalbumin
df, degrees of freedom p, probability
DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
DMSO, dimethylsulfoxide PBL, peripheral blood lymphocyte
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell
DNase, deoxyribonuclease PBS, phosphate-buffered saline
DNP, dinitrophenyl PE, phycoerythrin
dpm, disintegrations per minute PECAM-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1
ds, double-stranded (as dsDNA) PerCP, peridinin chlorophyll protein
DTT, dithiothreitol PFU, plaque-forming unit
E, erythrocyte PG, prostaglandin
EBV, Epstein-Barr virus PHA, phytohemagglutinin
EC50, 50% effective concentration PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
ECL, enhanced chemiluminescence PIPES, piperazine-N,N'-bis(2-ethane sulfonic acid)
ED50, 50% effective dose PMA, phorbol myristate acetate
EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid PMSF, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
EGTA, ethylene glycol-bis(b-aminoethyl ester)-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid PWM, pokeweed mitogen
ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay r, recombinant, (e.g., rIFN-γ)
ELISPOT, enzyme-linked immunospot R, receptor (e.g., IL-2R)
EMSA, electrophoretic mobility shift assay RACE, rapid amplification of cDNA end
ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase RAG, recombination-activating gene
E:T ratio, effector to target ratio RANTES, regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted
Fab, Ag-binding fragment RBC, red blood cell
F-actin, filamentous actin RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism
FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorting RIA, radioimmunoassay
FAM, 6-carboxyfluorescein RNA, ribonucleic acid
FBS, fetal bovine serum RNase, ribonuclease
FcR, Fc receptors (e.g., FcgRI) rpm, revolutions per minute
FCS, fetal calf serum RPMI (usually RPMI 1640)
FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate rRNA, ribosomal RNA
FLICE, Fas-associated death domain-like IL-1Β-converting enzyme RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
FLIP, FLICE inhibitory protein s, second (use only with numbers)
FLT3, fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 s.c., subcutaneous
fMLF, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine SCID, severe combined immunodeficiency
fura 2-AM, fura 2-acetoxymethyl ester SD, standard deviation
g, gram (only with numbers) SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate
GALT, gut-associated lymphoid tissue SE, standard error
GAPDH or G3PDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase SEM, standard error of the mean
G-CSF, granulocyte CSF SHIP, src homology 2-containing inositol 5' phosphatase
GDP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate SIV, simian immunodeficiency virus
GFP, green fluorescent protein sp. act., specific activity
GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage CSF SRBC, sheep red blood cell
GMP, guanosine 5'-monophosphate ss, single-stranded (e.g., ssDNA)
gp, glycoprotein (e.g., gp100) SSC, standard saline citrate
GPI, glycosylphosphatidylinositol STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription
GST, glutathione S-transferase SV40, simian virus 40
GTP, guanosine 5'-triphosphate t1/2, half-life, half-time
h, hour (only with numbers) TAMRA, 5-(and 6)-carboxytetramethylrhodamine
H chain, heavy chain TAP, transporter associated with Ag processing
H&E, hematoxylin and eosin TBS, Tris-buffered saline
HBSS, Hanks' balanced salt solution TBST, TBS with Tween 20
HEPES, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid TCA, trichloroacetic acid
HIV, human immunodeficiency virus TCR, T cell receptor for Ag
HLA, human histocompatibility leukocyte Ag TDP, thymidine 5'-diphosphate
HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography TdT, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase
HRP, horseradish peroxidase TGF, transforming growth factor
HSV, herpes simplex virus Th cell, T helper cell
HUVEC, human umbilical vein endothelial cell TLC, thin layer chromatography
IC50, 50% inhibition/inhibitory concentration TLR, Toll-like receptor
ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule TMP, thymidine 5'-monophosphate
ICOS, inducible costimulator TNF, tumor necrosis factor
Id, idiotype; idiotypic determinant TNP, trinitrophenyl
ID50, 50% infective dose or 50% inhibiting dose TRAIL, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand
IDO, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase Tris, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
IFA, incomplete Freund's adjuvant tRNA, transfer RNA
IFN, interferon (e.g., IFN-γ) TTP, thymidine 5'-triphosphate
Ig, immunoglobulin (also IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM) TUNEL, TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling
IgH, Ig heavy chain U, unit (only with numbers)
IκB or I-κB, inhibitory NF-κB UDP, uridine 5'-diphosphate
IL, interleukin (e.g., IL-2) UMP, uridine 5'-monophosphate
i.m., intramuscular UTP, uridine 5'-triphosphate
IMDM, Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium UV, ultraviolet
IMEM, Iscove's minimal essential medium v/v, volume to volume ratio (%)
i.p., intraperitoneal v/w, volume to weight ratio (%)
ITAM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif V region, variable region of Ig
ITIM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule
IU, international unit V(D)J or VDJ, variable diversity joining
i.v., intravenous VLA, very late activation Ag
J region, joining region of Ig or T cell receptor for Ag W, watt (only with numbers)
JAK or Jak, Janus kinase WBC, white blood cell
JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase WEHI medium
kb, kilobase (only with numbers) wk, week (only with numbers)
kbp, kilobase pair (only with numbers) xid, X-linked immunodeficiency
Ka, association constant ZAP70, ζ-associated protein 70 (or ζ-chain-associated protein 70)
Kd, distribution coefficient; dissociation constant  
KD, affinity constant  
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