PILLARS OF IMMUNOLOGY
ALLERGY AND OTHER HYPERSENSITIVITIES
Evidence that High-Affinity IgE Can Develop in the Germinal Center in the Absence of an IgG1-Switched Intermediate
In systemic responses, high-affinity IgE develops via an IgG1+ GC B cell stage.
In a food allergy response, high-affinity IgE does not need an IgG1+ GC B cell stage.
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
Immunogen-Specific Strengths and Limitations of the Activation-Induced Marker Assay for Assessing Murine Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses
The AIM assay is useful for immunization, infection, and autoimmunity mouse models.
AIM assay efficacy differs following protein immunization versus acute infection.
CD4+ T cells from chronic viral infection are defective in AIM marker upregulation.
MicroRNA-155 Plays Selective Cell-Intrinsic Roles in Brain-Infiltrating Immune Cell Populations during Neuroinflammation
miR-155 has a broad impact on the brain’s immunological landscape during EAE.
miR-155 regulates both immune cell dynamics and gene expression in the brain.
miR-155 plays cell-intrinsic functional roles in brain T cells and DCs during EAE.
Differentiation states of islet IL-21+ CD4 T cells are heterogeneous in NOD mice.
IL-21+ Tfh-like and Th1 CD4 T effector cells are found in islets of NOD mice.
IL-27 regulates the differentiation of islet IL-21+ CD4 T cells in NOD mice.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Persons with HIV Develop Spike-Specific Lymph Node Germinal Center Responses following SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination
Persons with HIV can generate germinal center B and T cell responses to vaccination.
Vaccine responses in the draining lymph node vary considerably in persons with HIV.
Commensal Bacteria and the Lung Environment Are Responsible for Th2-Mediated Memory Yielding Natural IgE in MyD88-Deficient Mice
Memory B cells continuously produce serum natural IgE in MyD88−/− mice.
Natural IgE is induced by the bacteria accumulated in the lung of MyD88−/− mice.
The lung environment and CSF1 therefrom facilitate the Th2 response in MyD88−/− mice.
Postburn secretion of G-CSF and IL-6 is IL-1/MyD88–dependent.
Secretion of G-CSF and IL-6 mediates distinct features of postburn ACI.
Attenuation of IL-1 signaling has the potential to improve postburn erythropoiesis.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
NK cells accumulate and proliferate in skin wounds.
NK cells express proinflammatory factors in skin wounds.
Depletion of NK cells enhances re-epithelization and collagen deposition.
cIAP1/2 antagonism increases DC activation and priming of tumor-specific T cells.
T cells are direct cellular targets of cIAP1/2 antagonism in vivo.
T cell–dependent immunity is elicited even in poorly immunogenic pancreatic cancer.
NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
Development of a Sensitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Three Amplification Antibodies to Detect Low-Abundant Mouse Antibodies in the Mouse Central Nervous System
An ELISA procedure for calculating detection, quantitation limits, and interpolation is described.
Methods to improve the sensitivity of ELISAs (e.g., adding amplification Abs) are presented.
On the cover: Illustration of a multiple-layer amplification tree of polyclonal Abs to significantly increase the sensitivity of an ELISA. Black dot: Ag; black Ab: analyte; blue Ab: first amplification step; red Ab: second amplification step; and, finally, in green: the HRP-coupled third Ab. Shan, H.-M., M. E. Schwab, and M. A. Maurer. 2023. Development of a sensitive enzymelinked immunosorbent assay with three amplification antibodies to detect low-abundant mouse antibodies in the mouse central nervous system. J. Immunol. 210: 1004–1010.
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